Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of the essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus, a plant used in traditional medicine.

Bayala B, Coulibaly AY, Djigma FW, Nagalo BM, Baron S, Figueredo G, Lobaccaro JA, Simpore J. Biomol Concepts. 2020 Apr 15 ;11(1):86-96. doi : 10.1515/bmc-2020-0007. PMID : 32304294


Objectives Natural products commonly used in traditional medicine, such as essential oils (EOs), are attractive sources for the development of molecules with anti-proliferative activities for future treatment of human cancers, e.g., prostate and cervical cancer. In this study, the chemical composition of the EO from Cymbopogon nardus was characterized, as well as its antioxidativeproperties and anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities on LNCaP cells derived from prostate cancer.
Methods The chemical composition of the EO was determined by GC/FID and GC/MS analyses. The antioxidative properties were assessed using DPPH radical scavenging assay and ABTS+• radical cation decolorization assay, and the anti-inflammatory capacity was determined by the inhibition of the lipoxygenase activity. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by MTT assay. Results Collectively, our data show that the major constituents of C. nardus EO are citronellal (33.06 %), geraniol (28.40 %), nerol (10.94 %), elemol (5.25 %) and delta-elemene (4.09 %). C. nardus EO shows modest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to the standard galic acid. C. nardus EO exhibits the best antiproliferative activity on the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP with an IC50 of 58.0 ± 7.9 μg/mL, acting through the induction of the cell cycle arrest.
Conclusions This study has determined that C. nardus EO efficiently triggers cytotoxicity and pens a new field of investigation regarding the putative use of this EO in vivo.

Keywords : Cymbopogon nardus ; anti-inflammatory ; antioxidant ; antiproliferative ; essential oil ; gas chromatography.

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