Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genes deletion polymorphisms and risk of developing essential hypertension : a case-control study in Burkina Faso population (West Africa).

Sombié HK, Sorgho AP, Kologo JK, Ouattara AK, Yaméogo S, Yonli AT, Djigma FW, Tchelougou D, Somda D, Kiendrébéogo IT, Bado P, Nagalo BM, Nagabila Y, Adoko ETHD, Zabsonré P, Millogo H, Simporé J. BMC Med Genet. 2020 Mar 19 ;21(1):55. doi : 10.1186/s12881-020-0990-9. PMID : 32188413


Background : Glutathione S-transferases play a key role in the detoxification of persistent oxidative stress products which are one of several risks factors that may be associated with many types of disease processes such as cancer, diabetes, and hypertension. In the present study, we characterize the null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 in order to investigate the association between them and the risk of developing essential hypertension.

Methods : We conducted a case-control study in Burkina Faso, including 245 subjects with essential hypertension as case and 269 control subjects with normal blood pressure. Presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 was determined using conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction followed by gel electrophoresis analysis. Biochemical parameters were measured using chemistry analyzer CYANExpert 130.

Results : Chi-squared test shows that GSTT1-null (OR = 1.82 ; p = 0.001) and GSTM1-active/GSTT1-null genotypes (OR = 2.33 ; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in cases than controls ; the differences were not significant for GSTM1-null, GSTM1-null/GSTT1-active and GSTM1-null/GSTT1-null (p > 0.05). Multinomial logistic regression revealed that age ≥ 50 years, central obesity, family history of hypertension, obesity, alcohol intake and GSTT1 deletion were in decreasing order independent risk factors for essential hypertension. Analysis by gender, BMI and alcohol showed that association of GSTT1-null with risk of essential hypertension seems to be significant when BMI < 30 Kg/m2, in non-smokers and in alcohol users (all OR ≥ 1.77 ; p ≤ 0.008). Concerning GSTT1, GSTM1 and cardiovascular risk markers levels in hypertensive group, we found that subjects with GSTT1-null genotype had higher waist circumference and higher HDL cholesterol level than those with GSTT1-active (all p < 0.005), subjects with GSTM1-null genotype had lower triglyceride than those with GSTM1-active (p = 0.02) and subjects with the double deletion GSTM1-null/GSTT1-null had higher body mass index, higher waist circumference and higher HDL cholesterol than those with GSTM1-active/GSTT1-active genotype (all p = 0.01).

Conclusion : Our results confirm that GSTT1-null genotype is significantly associated with risk of developing essential hypertension in Burkinabe, especially when BMI < 30 Kg/m2, in non-smokers and in alcohol users, and it showed that the double deletion GSTM1-null/GSTT1-null genotypes may influence body lipids repartition.

Keywords : Burkina Faso ; Essential hypertension ; GSTM1 ; GSTT1 ; Null genotypes.


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