Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus in Children under Five in Africa (2006-2016) : A Systematic Review

D. Ouermi, D. Soubeiga, W.M.C. Nadembèga, P.M. Sawadogo, T.M. Zohoncon, D. Obiri-Yeboah, F.W. Djigma, J. Nordgren and J. Simpore, 2017. ; Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in children under five in Africa (2006-2016) : A systematic review. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 20 : 59-69.

Group A human rotaviruses (RVA) are the most common causes of severe viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide.The available vaccines, while effective in Europe and North America have shown a reduced efficacy in Africa. One issue raised is the genetic variability of RVA. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review of molecular epidemiology to determine the prevalence of RVA genotypes circulating in Africa so as to establish a mapping of reliable data on these various genotypes. The search for articles was done from the National Institutes of Health (PUBMED) using three set of keywords. Articles were selected with inclusion criteria such as the date of publication, the age of the children, the sample size and the diagnostic techniques (standardized laboratory techniques). The data were imported into STATA SE version 11 software. Specific prevalence was estimated with Confidence Intervals (CI) of 95%. A total of 326 published studies were initially retrieved, out of which 27 studies were finally selected for the systematic review.
The selected studies cover 20 African countries. The most encountered genotypes in Africa during this period were G1 (32.72%), followed by G2 (17.17%), G3 (9.88%), G9 (8.61%) and G12 (7.56%) among the G-types. The most common P-types were P[8] (48.71%) followed by P[6] (22.60%) and P[4] (11.58%) and the G1P[8] combination (22.64%) was the most encountered followed by G2P[4] (8.29%), G9P[8] (6.95%) and G2P[6] (5.00%). North Africa presented the highest prevalence of the P[8] genotype (65.70%). This review provides a comprehensive view of the current circulating rotavirus strains in Africa, which can be important in light of the new rotavirus vaccinations. Indeed, in Africa, the pursuit of national and continental studies for epidemiological surveillance of circulating rotavirus strains is vital for the promotion of future successful vaccines.

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