Residual risk of HIV, HCV, and HBV transmission by blood transfusion between 2015 and 2017 at the Regional Blood Transfusion Center of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Yooda AP, Sawadogo S, Soubeiga ST, Obiri-Yeboah D, Nebie K, Ouattara AK, Diarra B, Simpore A, Yonli YD, Sawadogo AG, Drabo BE, Zalla S, Siritié AP, Nana RS, Dahourou H, Simpore J. ; J Blood Med. 2019 Feb 1 ;10:53-58. doi : 10.2147/JBM.S189079. eCollection 2019 ; PMID : 30774493 ;

Introduction :In sub-Saharan Africa, the high endemicity of blood-borne infections is a serious threat to transfusion safety. In order to improve transfusion safety, Burkina Faso has undertaken in recent years a reorganization of its blood-transfusion system through the creation of a National Blood Transfusion Center, which is the only blood operator in the whole country. This study aimed to estimate the residual risk of transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) by blood transfusion at the Regional Blood Transfusion Center (RBTC) of Ouagadougou.
Methods :This was a retrospective study conducted at the RBTC of Ouagadougou between 2015 and 2017. Prevalence of infectious markers was calculated for first-time donors and incidence rates calculated for repeat donors who had made at least two donations of blood over the study period. Residual risks were estimated for the three viruses (HIV, HBV, and HCV) by multiplying the incidence rate per 100,000 person-years by the respective durations of serological windows.
Results :Between 2015 and 2017, of a total of 84,299 blood donors, 68,391 (81.13%) were first-time donors compared to 15,908 (18.87%) repeat donors. The seroprevalence of HBV (8.56%) was twice that of HCV (4.40%) and fourfold that of HIV (1.80%). Incidence rates were 1,215, 2,601, and 1,599 per 100,000 donations for HIV, HCV, and HBV, respectively. In contrast, the estimated residual risk for HCV (1 in 213 donations) was double that of HBV (1 in 408 donations) and four times that of HIV (1 in 1,366).
Conclusion :The residual risk of transmission of these viruses by blood transfusion remains high in repeat donors. An effective donor-retention and education policy could help to reduce this residual risk.
KEYWORDS :incidence ; infectious diseases ; prevalence ; residual transfusion risk

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