Impact of Multiplex PCR in Reducing the Risk of Residual Transfusion-Transmitted Human Immunodeficiency and Hepatitis B and C Viruses in Burkina Faso.

Yooda AP, Soubeiga ST, Nebie KY, Diarra B, Sawadogo S, Ouattara AK, Obiri-Yeboah D, Yonli AT, Tao I, Sorgho PA, Dahourou H, Simpore J. ; Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2018 Jul ; 1 ;10(1):e2018041. doi : 10.4084/MJHID.2018.041. eCollection 2018. PMID : 30002797 ;

Background and Objective  : The improved performance of serological tests has significantly reduced the risk of human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B and C viruses transmission by blood transfusion, but there is a persistence of residual risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of multiplex PCR in reducing the risk of residual transmission of these viruses in seronegative blood donors in Burkina Faso.
Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted from March to September 2017. The serological tests were performed on sera using ARCHITECTSRi1000 (Abbot diagnosis, USA). Detection of viral nucleic acids was performed by multiplex PCR on mini-pools of seronegative plasma for HBV, HCV and HIV using SaCycler-96 Real Time PCR v.7.3 (Sacace Biotechnologies). Multiplex PCR-positive samples from these mini-pools were then individually tested by the same method.
Results : A total of 989 donors aged 17 to 65 were included in the present study. "Repeat donors" accounted for 44.79% (443/989). Seroprevalences for HIV, HBV, and HCV were 2.53% (25/989), 7.28% (72/989) and 2.73% (27/989), respectively. Of the 14 co-infections detected, HBV/HCV was the most common with 0.71% (7/989) of cases. Of 808 donations tested by multiplex PCR, 4.70% (38/808) were positive for HBV while no donation was positive for HIV or HCV.
Conclusion  : Our study showed a high residual risk of HBV transmission through blood transfusion. Due to the high prevalence of blood-borne infections in Burkina Faso, we recommend the addition of multiplex PCR to serologic tests for optimal blood donation screening.
KEYWORDS : Burkina Faso ; HBV ; HCV ; HIV ; Transfusion ; multiplex PCR

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