World Hepatitis Day in Burkina Faso, 2016 : Awareness, Screening, Identification of HBV Markers, HBV/HCV Coinfection, and Vaccination

Birama Diarra , Abdoul Karim Ouattara , Florencia Wendkuuni Djigma , Tegwinde Rebeca Compaore, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah , Lassina Traore , Serge Theophile Soubeiga , Prosper Bado , Justine Yara , Virginio Pietra , Paul Ouedraogo , Alain Bougouma , Rokia Sanogo and Jacques Simpore ;
Hepat Mon. In Press(In Press):e13789.2017 May 31.

Abstract :

Background : Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HBV leads to a higher risk of liver damage. Development of HBV awareness campaigns could reduce the prevalence of this disease and limit the consequences.

Objectives : The aim of this study was to sensitize, detect, and identify HBV markers and propose vaccination for people not infected with HBV.

Methods : With the support of “SOS Hepatitis Burkina” association, an HBV screening program, available for all volunteers, was implemented in several localities of Ouagadougou and the surroundings. A rapid HBsAg detection test was performed on 2207 subjects, who voluntarily answered a series of questions. A rapid detection test of HCV antibodies was performed in HBsAg-positive cases. HBV markers were also determined in HBsAg-positive cases.

Results : In a sample of 2207 individuals, aged 1 - 85 years (mean age, 31.4 ± 15.7 years), the prevalence of HBsAg was 9.8% (217/2207) after screening. Before screening, 6.8% (150/2207) of the participants claimed that they were vaccinated against HBV. Also, multivariate analysis revealed that HBV infection was significantly associated with age (21 - 30 years) and vaccination status (P = 0.03 ; OR, 1.67 ; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.69 and P = 0.003 ; OR, 5.69 ; 95% CI, 1.80 to 18.00, respectively). Among 217 HBsAg-positive cases, the prevalence of HBV markers was reported as follows : AbHBs (0.9%), HBeAg (6.0%), AbHBe (87.6%), and AbHBc (100.0%). Based on the findings, HCV was detected in 0.9% (2/217) of HBsAg-positive subjects. In this study, 628 out of 1990 HBsAg-negative subjects were vaccinated for three doses, resulting in a vaccination rate of 31.6%.

Conclusions : The present study reported an HBsAg prevalence of 9.8% in the study population. This intervention could contribute to major vaccination coverage against HBV after screening. Therefore, raising awareness and development of screening campaigns on HBV can increase the vaccination coverage of the population. The findings also showed that absence of vaccination against HBV constitutes a high-risk factor for HBV infection.

Keywords : Hepatitis B and C ; Awareness ; Screening ; Vaccination

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