Giambra V, Martínez-Labarga C, Giufré M, Modiano D, Simporé J, Gisladottir BK, Francavilla R, Zhelezova G, Kilic SS, Crawford M, Biondi G, Rickards O, Frezza D.
Ann Hum Genet. 2006 Nov ;70(Pt 6):946-50. PMID : 17044868
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The human HS1,2 enhancer of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain 3’ enhancer complex plays a central role in the regulation of Ig maturation and production. Four common alleles HS1,2-A*1, *2, *3, *4 are directly implicated with the transcription level and at least one of them, HS1, 2-A*2, seems to be related to immune disorders, such as coeliac disease, herpetiform dermatitis and Berger syndrome. Given their clinical significance it is of interest to know the distribution of HS1,2-A variants in populations from different continents, as well as to determine whether the polymorphism is associated to specific evolutionary factors. In this paper we report the distribution of the HS1,2-A polymorphism in 1098 individuals from various African, Asian and European populations. HS1,2-A*3 and HS1,2-A*4 alleles are at their highest frequencies among Africans, and HS1,2-A*2 is significantly lower in Africans in comparison with both Europeans and, to a lesser extent, Asians. Analysis of molecular variance of the allele frequencies indicates that the HS1,2-A polymorphism can be considered as a reliable anthropogenetic marker.