Nadembega WM, Giannella S, Simpore J, Ceccherini-Silberstein F, Pietra V, Bertoli A, Pignatelli S, Bellocchi MC, Nikiema JB, Cappelli G, Bere A, Colizzi V, Perno CP, Musumeci S.
J Med Virol. 2006 Nov ;78(11):1385-91.
PMID : 16998878 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Non-B HIV subtypes have been estimated to account for 88% of HIV infections in the world. These subtypes are particularly relevant in view of the availability of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, since subtype-specific mutations are associated with drug-resistance in developing countries. Therefore, the pol gene sequences in HIV-1 isolates were examined from the three distinct groups of 39 infected patients from Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso : 17 patients who had not received any antiretroviral therapy (ART) ; 16 patients received ART, and 6 HIV-infected children, from infected mothers, received a single Nevirapine dose prophylaxis during birth. HIV-1 pol sequencing was successful for 29 samples. As expected, all patients presented the common (non-B subtype) M36I polymorphism and 26/29 (90%) the K20I mutation. Phylogenetic studies showed high predominance of recombinant HIV-1 strains : CRF06_cpx 16/29 (55.17%), CRF02_AG 9/29 (31.03%), A1 2/29 (6.89%), G 1/29 (3.44%), and CRF09_cpx 1/29 (3.44%). Two twins showed, 6 months after birth, a NNRTI-mutation (Y181C/Y). During the same period, the twin mother presented a different NNRTI-mutation (V106I), thus suggesting that the different blood drug concentration may determine a different drug-resistance pathway. Among 17 non-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) patients, 3/17 (17.64%) presented virus with reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations [V118I : 1/17 patients (5.88%), V179E : 2/17 patients (11.76%)]. 10/17 (58.82%) presented virus with minor protease (PR) mutations [L63P : 5/17 patients (29.41%), V77I : 3/17 patients (17.64%), L10I : 2/17 patients (11.76%)]. 4/17 patients did not show any PR and RT mutations (23.52%). Among six HAART-treated patients, 6/6 and 3/6 had M36I and L63LP protease minor subtypes, respectively ; and only two (33.33%) presented virus with K103N mutation. The low prevalence of drug-resistant associated mutations in Burkina Faso is encouraging. However, further studies with a larger cohort with a high non-B subtype prevalence are necessary to optimize ART in developing countries.